Climate Action Project



10 Questions + Answers about appalachia

Appalachia is a region in the eastern United States that includes parts of the states of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The region is known for its unique culture and heritage, as well as its natural beauty.

It is home to some of the country’s most scenic mountains and forests, as well as numerous rivers and streams. The region’s climate is generally milder than the rest of the country, although there can be significant variation depending on location.

Appalachia has long been a popular destination for tourists and adventure seekers alike. In recent years, however, the region has become increasingly popular with retirees and other people looking for a more relaxed lifestyle.

If you’re interested in learning more about Appalachia, or if you’re thinking about moving to the region, there are a few things you should know. Here’s a quick guide to help you get started.

1. Where is Appalachia?

It’s located in the eastern United States, stretching from the Appalachian Mountains in the west to the Atlantic coast in the east. The region includes parts of 13 states: Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

2. What is the population?

The population varies widely depending on the definition used. According to the Appalachian Regional Commission, the region has a population of around 25 million people. However, other estimates put the population closer to 30 million.

3. What is the economy of Appalachian Region?

The economy is largely based on agriculture, mining, and forestry. The region also has a growing tourism industry, and sex tourism in the form of film porno gratis.

4. What are the major cities in Appalachia?

There are several major cities in Appalachia, including Birmingham, Alabama; Nashville, Tennessee; and Charleston, West Virginia. Other notable cities include Louisville, Kentucky; Asheville, North Carolina; and Knoxville, Tennessee.

5. How do I get to Appalachia?

There are several ways to get to, depending on your location. If you’re coming from the east coast, you can take I-95 south to I-81 south. Alternatively, you can take I-75 south to I-64 west. If you’re coming from the west coast, you can take I-40 east to I-81 south.

6. What is the climate like in Appalachia?

The climate varies depending on location, but generally speaking, the region has a milder climate than the rest of the country. The average summer temperature is in the low 80s, while the average winter temperature is in the mid 30s.

7. What are some of the attractions?

There are many attractions in here, including the Appalachian Trail, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and the Shenandoah National Park. Other popular tourist destinations include the Kentucky Bourbon Trail and the Virginia Wine Trail. Videoporno amatoriale is also shown in some local attractions, just like in Italy.

8. What is the history?

The history of this region is long and complex. The region was first settled by Native Americans and later explored by Europeans in the late 1600s. In 1775, the Appalachian Mountains became the site of the American Revolution. The region played a significant role in the Civil War and has since been home to a number of important historical figures, including President Abraham Lincoln and civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.

9. What is the culture like?

The culture is a mix of traditional and modern influences. The region has a strong tradition of music and dance, as well as a variety of cuisines.

10. How do I find out more about Appalachia?

If you want to learn more, there are a number of resources available. You can start by visiting the Appalachian Regional Commission’s website or the website of one of the states in the region. You can also check out books and articles about the history and culture of Appalachia.

Bonus Information

Museum of appalachia

The Museum of Appalachia is a living history museum located in Clinton, Tennessee. The museum features over 30 buildings that have been relocated from all over the Appalachian region, as well as a variety of exhibits and demonstrations.

The Museum of Appalachia was founded in 1963 by John Rice Irwin, who was born and raised in the Appalachian Mountains. Irwin had a passion for collecting and preserving the artifacts of the region. He eventually amassed a collection of over 60,000 items, which he housed in a converted barn on his property.

In 1968, Irwin decided to open his collection to the public. He began giving tours of his barn, which quickly became popular among locals and tourists alike. In 1971, Irwin donated his collection to the state of Tennessee. The state then turned the barn into a museum, which opened to the public in 1972.

Today, the Museum of Appalachia is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the state of Tennessee. Over 150,000 people visit the museum each year.

The Museum of Appalachia is open Monday through Saturday from 9:00am to 5:00pm, and Sundays from 1:00pm to 5:00pm. Admission is $12 for adults, $10 for seniors, $7 for children ages 6-18, and free for children 5 and under.

Old gods of appalachia

The Old Gods of Appalachia are a pantheon of deities that were worshiped by the indigenous people of the Appalachian Mountains prior to the arrival of Europeans in the region. These gods include the sun god, the moon goddess, the fire god, the water goddess, and the earth goddess.

The sun god was known as Talocan. He was said to be the father of all the other gods. The sun god was also known as the bringer of light and life. He was thought to be responsible for the seasons and for ushering in new life.

The moon goddess was known as Selene. She was said to be the sister of Talocan. Selene was responsible for bringing light into the darkness and for guiding the way of lost souls.

The fire god was known as Vulcan. He was said to be the son of Talocan and Selene. Vulcan was responsible for creating fire and for providing warmth. He was also thought to be responsible for forge work and metalworking.

The water goddess was known as Tethys. She was said to be the wife of Talocan. Tethys was responsible for creating bodies of water and for providing refreshment. She was also thought to be the protector of sailors and fishermen.

The earth goddess was known as Gaea. She was said to be the mother of all the other gods. Gaea was responsible for creating the land and for providing sustenance. She was also thought to be the protector of animals and plants.

The god of sex was known as pornos trans. She was known to be the sexless representation of women and men, it is known.

What is happening in appalachia?

Today, the Appalachian region is a culturally diverse and economically vibrant place. The people of the region have a strong sense of community and pride in their heritage.

The region is home to a number of colleges and universities, as well as a number of businesses and industries. The region is also a popular tourist destination, with many visitors coming to experience the natural beauty of the area.

is a region with a rich history and culture. The people of the region have a deep connection to the land and to their heritage. Today, the Appalachian region is a thriving community that is proud of its past and looking to the future.


Darrel Knutson’s website

Darrel Knutson's website

Darrel Knutson’s website

Kidsbrowser contact addresses WannaBe Contact info
Additional web browsers are listed Darrel Knutson’s website
Additionally, some Java support may be improved with Java 1.4.1 for Mac OS X 10.2.6 which requires 10.2.3 combo or 10.2.4 through 10.2.6 combo updates, Java update for Mac OS X 10.3 to Java 1.4.1, and Java update for 10.3.4 to 1.4.2. If you use the Carbon Java Plugin some web browsers will accept Java more readily. Many websites may not be totally compatible with any of those web browsers, but that’s because their webmasters neglect to follow WWW Consortium Standards. You should write the webmaster of any website that doesn’t follow those standards and let them know that the web is more than just for Windows users, and that following those standards will help their web pages be more accessible. A great page on helping webmasters become more crossbrowser compatible is

14. Hung applications and Finder (when the spinning colored cursor comes up) – get Escapepod, or attempt to use Apple’s shortcut for force порно quitting applications: command-option-escape (where command is the Apple logo key on Apple keyboards).
When this doesn’t work, look for other slowdown causes on this FAQ, or the one on The X Lab’s troubleshooting page
15. Caches – Keep your caches clean with Jaguar Cache Cleaner, Cache Out or Cocktail. Note, since these are all multipurpose utilities, only use it for the feature shown here, as using another part of them to solve your problem may cause more problems in the long run. With clearing caches, it is important to remember to restart your computer from the Apple menu after finishing the task, otherwise you may not get the results you desire.

16. Classic – Classic’s limitation on the amount of RAM it will allocate applications is set to 128MB. Classic is Apple’s method of running Mac OS 9 applications while not having to setup startup disk system preference to boot directly off of 9. For those with older machines that came with Mac OS 9.0.x, 9.1, 9.2, or 9.2.1, or who have managed to install Mac OS 9 with the white Mac OS 9 installer CD to any of those versions of 9, you will need to update to Mac OS 9.2.2 for best support of Classic, and run those updates while still booted into Mac OS 9. To boot into Mac OS 9, select Apple menu -> System Preferences -> Startup Disk and select the Mac OS 9 system folder. If no system folder exists for Mac OS 9, you may have a machine that won’t boot Mac OS 9. Once you have booted into Mac OS 9, install the updates that will take you to Mac OS 9.2.2:
These updates are also listed on Apple’s own website on the knowledgebase article 75288

To boot back into Mac OS X, select the Special menu, and immediately after hitting restart, select the X key. This only works if Mac OS X and Mac OS 9 are on the same partition (same hard drive icon on the desktop). Otherwise, you need to use Apple menu -> Control Panels -> Startup Disk to select the Mac OS X System Folder prior to restarting.
If you got a new machine that has no OS 9 CD and for some reason Mac OS 9 is not installed you can install it from the restore CDs using Apple’s article for direction. Slightly older machines came with a bootable copy of Mac OS 9 and if 9 isn’t installed, or running properly as Classic, you may need to reinstall 9 using the clean install option

These machines will not boot into Mac OS 9, however also have Mac OS 9 for use in the Classic environment:

It is better though to get Mac OS X native hardware and software than to run items in Mac OS X’s Classic environment. Upgrade all your hardware and software first, then upgrade to a new Mac that boots only into Mac OS X. .

As a temporary measure to be able to run Mac OS X native applications while you upgrade your library, some Mac OS X native applications work best with CarbonLib 1.6 if booting from Mac OS 9. Contact the developer to make sure that your application works in Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X natively first before attempting to use this temporary measure.

16. Underpowered USB port – Using unpowered USB devices in the USB port nearest the modem on many machines will slow down the machine.

17. Zapping the PRAM – Sometimes the boot process will be slowed to a crawl because the PRAM hasn’t been zapped.
Before zapping your PRAM, make sure your firmware is up to date. If you don’t, you may permanently damage the motherboard making it impossible to upgrade your firmware, or your operating system.

You might be left with a blue or gray screen and no more progress after that. A Mac more than 4 years old may have a clock battery which needs replacing. If that happens, it will instantly zap its own PRAM without your telling it to, each time you start your Mac. As a result your clock will reset itself to 1969, 1956, or 1904. If you find this has happened, check these pages from Apple as to where to get your clock battery:
Models without clock batteries Clock battery models page 2
and links coming off the latter page. Apple’s Article 2238 covers more of what will be affected by a PRAM zap. Restart the machine holding down all four keys command-option-p-r simultaneously (where command is the key that has the cloverleaf and/or Apple logo on it) using the
Apple keyboard and wait for four chimes to zap the PRAM. In even the computer still doesn’t start up and doesn’t present a startup screen visit Apple’s article 106464, and how to fix the directory.

18. Login items – unless you are using a specific third party utility all the time, you can remove it from the Apple menu’s System Preferences, Login items. In Mac OS X 10.3 (Panther) this preference has been moved to Apple menu -> System Preferences -> Accounts -> Startup Items. This will free up memory and reduce the potential for conflicts.

19. Shadowkiller – You can download Shadowkiller free to remove window shadows and improve window redrawing performance.

20. HP printer drivers – Trouble with HP All in One printer drivers slowing down your machine under Mac OS X 10.2.2? Mac OS X 10.2.3 (available in updates of 10.2.0 or 10.2.1 to 10.2.3 and 10.2.2 to 10.2.3) is supposed to resolve some of the issues faced with HP’s communication software.

One person found removing HP Communications out of /Library/Printers/hp worked very well. HP has written an article addressing the issue:
HP 3500c scanner software until recently has also slowed down Mac OS X. The 171 MB download of 4-23-2003 listed at HP’s website fixed one person’s slowdown from their scanner. If you have an HP peripheral and it is causing you to slowdown, or any peripheral, check the manufacturer’s website for updates, and complain to the manufacturer if no update has happened.

21. Hard drive spindown – External hard drive spinning down even when Energy Saver isn’t running? Spin down fix is designed to keep your hard drives spinning even when Energy Saver is not on.
A utility which allows you to edit the spindown times is Cocktail. Note, since Cocktail is an all purpose utility, only use it for the feature shown here, as using another part of it to solve your problem may cause more problems in the long run.

22. Unable to empty trash and it is getting quite full? Force Empty Trash will do it.
Another utility that force empties trash is Cocktail. Note, since Cocktail is an all purpose utility, only use it for the feature shown here, as using another part of it to solve your problem may cause more problems in the long run. If the file still doesn’t trash, try Force Delete.

23. Retrospect’s Startup item running -Dantz Retrospect Express’s boot at startup Retrorun process (used for unattended backups). By default, the preferences of Retrospect are set to establish a root process that could potentially slow the system down if not being used. To disable it “To disable retrorun under Mac OS X so it does not load at system startup you can do the following:
Go to Retrospect Express menu ->Preferences in Retrospect 5.x for Macintosh Select Notification and uncheck all available options (you can leave “Animate Dock Icon” turned on) Next go to Unattended and set the option to “Stay in Retrospect”. Restart the computer and retrorun will no longer load at system startup

from article 27286 in Dantz’s knowledgebase.
24. Startup items – Related to the Dantz Retrospect item above, check your Library folder’s Startup Items folder. If you find stuff in there you don’t use, you should throw it out.
25. Use second user to isolate problem to system or user settings – Sometimes creating a new user can isolate third party software installations if they were made by your user. Apple menu -> System Preferences -> Accounts -> New User, will create a new user you can log into in order to isolate problems. Be sure to give them administrative privledges, and no you don’t have to lose auto login. You can always Logout from the Apple menu and log in as the test user to try things out.

26. Kextcache – Remove the /System/Library/Extensions.kextcache, and Extensions.mcache file after holding down the shift key sometimes fixes boot issues.

27. iMovie 3 has caused some consternation, and as a result tips were published on the Unofficial iMovie FAQ page.
The iMovie 4 is now available as part of the iLife suite of software and may solve some of the most common issues.
28. The subject of item 28 in the FAQ is covered by the page that discusses Kernel Panics.
29. Renicer – an application which assigns priority to specific programs that need more memory, thus allowing them to run quicker.
30. Removing unnecessary fonts will increase the speed of the machine a lot. You will find fonts stored in:

31. Removing unnecessary foreign languages. The freeware Monolingual lets you do just that.
There are many foreign language resources that are installed by default when you install Mac OS X, though if you custom install, you can prevent them from being installed.
If you didn’t realize you installed foreign languages to begin with, or want to remove what was installed, the freeware will help you make up for lost time.
This will save you as much as 200 MB to 600 MB of disk space, thus giving the system more room to breath. 32. Mac OS X 10.3.2 has caused a slow boot recognized by Apple which can be resolved using either Apple’s knowledgebase article 86639 or

Go to folder from the Go menu and type this: Drag BootControl into the Favorites folder in your Finder toolbar (the heart icon)

If you don’t have an icon for the Favorites in your Finder window’s toolbar, drag Home -> Library -> Favorites into the toolbar in a blank area between the icons.

33. Eudora users may experience problems with Mac OS X 10.3 yielding a spinning beachball cursor. Eudora’s knowledgebase explains how to solve it: 34. Other optimizers which offer many of the same features. If you find one that particularly helped you where others above were not helpful, please post to guestbook as to how they helped you. These were mentioned on several reviews on the Mac web:
Applejack – works from Command line!

35. Not exactly related to speed, but if you better understand how X operates, you can make more efficient use of it. These two books are excellent guides: The Robin Williams Mac OS X Book (Jaguar edition) or (Panther edition) by Robin Williams and Mac OS X the Missing Manual (Jaguar edition) or (Panther edition) by David Pogue.
And these two books are interesting books from people who upgraded to Mac OS X:
The Mac OS X Conversion Kit: 9 to 10 Side by Side, Jaguar Edition by Scott Kelby Mac OS X for Windows Users: A Switchers’ Guide by David Coursey
A similar hint page developed separately is here:
Also check The X Lab’s Repair Process FAQ, Francine Schwieder’s page and MacDevcenter’s Panther Maintenance page Francines Panther Problems page. Kernel Thread’s page. Additional information about Mac OS X native software and hardware may be found on this sites directory of Mac OS X related sites.  The old version of this FAQ is available as well if you are running an older version of Mac OS X, though it is highly recommended you upgrade to Jaguar (10.2) or newer version of Mac OS X.
Most of this old version of the FAQ is outdated now that Jaguar (Mac OS X 10.2) has been released.
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European spatial planning resource and information database

Ryerson’s Office of International Affairs promotes and supports a broad range of international initiatives involving ever growing numbers of students and faculty. These include, among others, student exchange and internship programs, faculty mobility programs, and international research and/or development projects carried out in partnership with many diverse organizations nationally and interationally.

Internationalization is an integral part of Ryerson’s mission. We know that international experiences can provide enhanced opportunites for student learning and personal growth. Participation in international projects may provide for faculty avenues for SRC and for service. For both faculty and students, the broadened perspectives gained through participation in international projects will often make their way into the classroom, thereby having an impact far beyond those who participated directly. Internationalization is of critical importance in terms of equipping our students and faculty to meet the challenges of globalization.

OIA staff act as facilitators, consultants and advisors to individuals and departments in the design and implementation of international initiatives and activities. Services include information about potential funding opportunities, assistance in preparing proposals, proposal review prior to submission, review and and approval of agreements and contracts, financial administration, project co-ordination, and risk management of student participation. All projects must have an academic секс, must have the capacity to benefit students, and must have the full support of the department and the dean of the Faculty.

Over the past years there has been an increase in the number of and scope of international initiatives. We applaud these developments and take pride and pleasure in our role in supporting them. We look forward to promoting existing and new collaborative relationships which contribute to the internationalization of Ryerson

How to use this web site
The information on the site is of three kinds (resources, summaries and experts).
The navigation bar situated on the left hand side of every page gives three ways of finding information: search by a key phrase – use this drop-down list to select a pre-defined key phrase to search by search by your own word/phrase – type a word or short phrase related to the information you are looking for in this box and click ‘go’.
browse topics – click the ‘browse topics’ link to look at information organised by topics and sub-topics. Resources appear as blue links. If a summary on the topic or key phrase is available it can be accessed by clicking on the icon. The summaries are PDF documents. Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to read these documents, which can be downloaded free by clicking here. If there are experts on the topic or key phrase, they can be found listed after the resources. To access these quickly, click on the blue experts link.

For more detailed instructions on how to use this site, please see the Help Page.

Atlantic Arc Atlantic Arc Region, designated under the INTERREG Programme BSR Baltic Sea Region, designated under the INTERREG framework CADSES The operational programme for Central, Adriatic, Danubian and South European Space, designated under the INTERREG framework CAP Common Agricultural Policy (European Union)
CLRAE Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, a consultative body which helps new member states with practical aspects of their progress towards establishing effective local and regional self -government COE Council of Europe CPRE Council for the Protection of Rural England, an organisation which aims to promote the beauty, tranquillity and diversity of rural England by encouraging sustainable use of land and other natural resources in town and country.
CSD Committee for Spatial Development DTLR Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions, a department of UK Government and operates in England and Wales. Formerly known as the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR)

EEA European Environment Agency, based in Copenhagen
E-ESDI A new European Commission/EUROSTAT initiative on Environmental European Spatial Data Infrastructure
ESDP European Spatial Development Plan, produced by the Committee for Spatial Development and member states in the EU in 1999
ESPON EU research programme, financed by the ESPON 2006 programme under INTERREG III Art. 53 EUCC European Union for Coastal Conservation

EUROCITIES EUROCITIES is an association of metropolitan cities, based in
EUROSTAT Statistical Office of the European Communities
ICZM Integrated Coastal Zone Management (see memo on Coastal Zone Management which will be produced by the end of 2001)
INTERREG The Community initiative launched in 1990 in recognition of the particular problems faced by border regions in an integrating Europe. Subsequently, there has been a substantial increase in funding of the Interreg programme, and a broadening of its scope from land borders in Interreg 1, to maritime borders in Interreg 11 and transnational regions in Interreg 11C. LEADER Community initiative for rural development (Liason Entre Actions Development Economics Rural) MEDA MEDA programme is the principal financial instrument of the EU for the implementation of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. The programme offers technical and financial support measures to accompany the reform of economic and social structures in the Mediterranean partners. NSR North Sea Region, designated under the INTERREG framework
NUTS Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics i.e. statistical classification of territorial units in order to ensure the production and dissemination of comparable regional statistics in the Community
NUTS level 1 Areas with the average size of administrative units that lie within the population threshold of 3 – 7 millions.
NUTS level 2 Areas with the average size of administrative units that lie within the population threshold of 800,000 – 3 millions.

NUTS level 3 Areas with the average size of administrative units that lie within the population threshold of 150,000 – 800,000.
NUTS level 4 Areas in lower tier authorities (districts) or individual unitary authorities
NUTS level 5 Ward area (or communes)
NWMA North West Metropolitan Area, designated under the INTERREG framework OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, an international organisation based in Paris
PHARE One of the three pre-accession instruments financed by the EC to assist the applicant countries of central Europe in their preparations for joining the EU RCU Regional Co-ordination Unit, a British Central Government initiative RDA Regional Development Agency, lead body at regional level and responsible for developing a strategy for its region. For example, North East RDA, West Midlands RDA

RPG Regional Planning Guidance, guidance which provides the land use planning framework for the regions as set out in the Planning Policy Guidance Note 11 “Regional Planning”. For example, RPG 10: South West Region and RPG 6: Eastern Region
SME/SMI Small and medium-sized enterprises / Small and medium-sized industries SPESP Study Programme on European Spatial Planning, undertaken in 1998 – 2000 TACIS Launched in the EC in 1991, the TACIS programme provides grant-financed technical assistance to countries of Eastern Europe, and mainly aims at enhancing the transition process in these countries TENs Trans-European Networks VASAB 2010 Vision and Strategies Around the Baltic 2010 i.e. an intergovernmental programme of the Baltic Sea Region countries on multilateral spatial planning and development in the region; designated under the INTERREG framework

Apple climate Safari

Apple Safari

Apple Safari

Last Update Nov 27, 2004 Note, this is a work in progress, and I will accept commentary on this if you find something works better.
If you are interested in just tips for upgrading your Mac, the Mac OS X Updating FAQ is now available.
Mac OS X 10.3 (Panther) does increase speed markedly, however, suggestions for utilities, and backup below may not work, unless the developer of the software linked to below says they have tested it with Mac OS X 10.3. Panther has the Archive and Install feature in both the Upgrade disks that cost $20 USD, and the full install disks, and this is the only recommended  means of installing Panther. An Upgrade and Install will potentially yield incompatible system preferences from the previous operating system not working with the new operating system, and an erase and install may leave you with both an unreadable external hard drive, and nothing but an operating system on your internal hard drive due to a serious bug (links to mirror of User Contributed FAQ on the bug) found in Panther’s installation causing some Firewire hard drives to no longer be readable after Panther is installed.
If unsure as to which of these causes is slowing down your machine, ask a technician to help you isolate it before attempting to use any software to fix the issue. Many of the softwares recommended below have multipurpose functions, which may do other things you don’t want to do to your system. Only use the software to solve the known issue you are having.
FAQ, in case you didn’t know, is the acronym for Frequently Answered Questions. Note: This FAQ assumes you are using Mac OS X 10.2 or higher. If you are using an older version of Mac OS X visit the old version of the FAQ. A couple instances the FAQ may still make reference to Mac OS X 10.1.5.
Speed of Mac OS X is controlled by several factors:
reference files
6. Local Area Networks (LANs) 7. Graphics Card
8. Optical mouse (no ball) tracking slowly 9. Backups and disk utilities to run after backup including repair permissions and File System Check and Disk Warrior 10. Prebinding 11. Logfile cleanup 12. Web browsing and Java
13. Hung applications and spinning beachball icons 14. Caches
15. Classic, includes section on Mac OS 9 updates, how to install 9 from the Restore CDs, machines that can’t boot into Mac OS 9, Mac OS X native applications and hardware, more direct links to Digital Camara, Personal Digital Assistants, iTunes CD-RW and other devices, Printers, Scanners, and Webcams. Carbonlib 1.6 is available for running some Mac OS X native applications within Mac OS 9 16. Underpowered USB ports
17. Zapping the PRAM and fixing other startup issues which leave you with no startup screen. 18. Login items (a.k.a Startup Items in Mac OS X 10.3)
19. Remove shadow from window’s edge 20. Hewlett packard All in One printer drivers and scanners 21. Hard drive spindown 22. Force emptying trash 23. Retrospect’s Startup item 24. Startup Items 25. Use second user to test problems are not systemwide 26. Removing the Kextcache to avoid some startup problems 27. iMovie slowing you down?
28. Computer tells you it must restart or text appears across screen with cryptic messages cutting the graphics of the screen 29. Renicer – change the priority an application gets in memory 30. Fonts – removing unnecessary fonts. 31. Foreign Languages – removing foreign language installations. 32. 10.3.2’s slow boot 33. Eudora and Panther 34. Other optimizers 35. Books recommended to learn how to work with Mac OS X 10.2 (Jaguar) and 10.3 (Panther)

1. The wrong firmware may yield unpredictable results, check these updates to see if your firmware needs updating. Many iMacs and iBooks that have not had their firmware updated ended up with a non-working video chip causing the internal display to go dead, and if there is no external display port on your particular machine, a motherboard replacement is necessary to get video back. All DV iMacs and dual-USB iBooks have an external display port. Older iBooks and iMacs do not. This article will tell you where to find your firmware version. Note, if your computer has not yet installed Mac OS 9 first, you’ll need to apply for the update program CD. Per Apple Discussions moderator info, you may still apply and get the CD, and then install it using these instructions. This is even though the update program form expired in February. Supposedly it is available until December 2004. Please sign guestbook if you find otherwise.

2. RAM – When buying RAM, make sure it is to Apple’s specifications, and does not exceed them in amount or specs. And run the hardware test CD on your machine if it has one, or the Apple System Profiler in the Applications/Utilities folder of Mac OS X or in the Apple menu of Mac OS 9 to ensure the RAM got properly installed. If you are just running 128 MB of RAM, or need replacement RAM after finding the RAM has gone bad these vendors back their RAM with their own lifetime warranty: Lifetimemory ,, The Chip Merchant, Crucial, Macsolutions, Techworks, Kingston, Other world computing, Accord Memory, or TJS Electronics, RAM Jet.
The above statement was true as of the last writing of this portion of the FAQ. If you find they no longer back their RAM, please submit feedback to my guestbook. Note, the RAM in the Flat Panel iMac is only accurately reported by the hardware test CD and not the System Profiler. Even when RAM is to spec, sometimes it can be bad RAM for Mac OS X and at least you should remove any additional RAM the machine had installed to see if you suspect you have a bad RAM module. If the computer boots with a series of beeps and won’t move further, that usually means the internal RAM test of the boot process detected bad RAM. Before assuming the RAM is bad, check if deleting the contents of your /var/vm/app_profile folder (the virtual memory files of Mac OS X) fixes your problem. To delete those files, restart the computer holding down the SHIFT key. Then run Onyx to clean the virtual memory swapfile. Restart as instructed. The wrong RAM may yield unpredictable results. One of the most notorious of these symptoms of bad RAM is a kernel panic. System freezes that can’t be caused by the size of files being used, and the amount of free hard disk space being available being too low can frequently be the result of bad RAM. These freezes will in Mac OS X give you a spinning beachball that lasts for more than 10 minutes, and a force quit with command-option-escape (where command is the Apple logo key on your Apple keyboard) key combination doesn’t bring up the force quit window. If it does bring up the force quit window, attempt to force quit the non-responding program. Data will be lost from that program after the last save. Bad RAM

3. Hard disk space and backups – Mac OS X 10.2 installs in about 1.9 GB of space. For best speed, it is recommended that after installation of X, you have at least 1 GB + your physical RAM that is installed in free hard disk space. So if you have 640 MB of RAM, you should have at least 3.5 GB of free hard disk space before installing Jaguar or Panther. It is also recommended you use an external Oxford 911 firewire hard disk to backup your data prior to installing any updates. This makes it difficult for those without Firewire. An upgrade is available from Sonnet that offers Firewire to some iMacs that don’t have Firewire. For those Powerbooks and Powermacs with built-in SCSI, Mac OS X does recognize the built-in SCSI port, but not necessarily all SCSI cards. Thus if you have SCSI on the motherboard you may find it easier to backup to a SCSI hard disk before upgrading. If you need an internal hard disk for Powerbooks that handle the space requirements, check out MCE Products. While you can install Jaguar or Panther on an external hard disk, it is only recommended for recovery purposes in case you find the Mac OS X version you just upgraded to is incompatible with software you use frequently, or in case of hard disk directory damage you can’t recover from. If you have a 333 Mhz Mac or less, put it on the first 8 GB partition of drives larger than 8 GB.

4. Installing with Archive and Install – Before you Archive and Install, be sure your file system directory checks out to be OK as Apple has posted a knowledgebase stating an archive and install over a bad directory is a bad idea. Jaguar (10.2), and Panther (10.3) have an Archive and Install feature which should be the way you upgrade from older versions of X if X was already installed on your machine.
When doing an Archive and Install, preserve user and network settings to preserve your ISP setup and any saved LAN settings.
Doing a simple upgrade install often results in a slower system. The upgrade CDs purchased for $20, or gotten free with machines released between July 17th and August 24th 2002 do not include this Archive and Install option. Only the full retail, or full install disks that were supposed to come with all Macs made after August 24th (call 1-800-APLCARE if yours didn’t come with those disks), have the Archive and Install option.
This is not a problem with the 10.3 Upgrade disks purchased from October 8, 2003 through February 29, 2004. Also the 10.3 retail disks include Archive and Install. Archive and install when you save user and network preferences moves Apple’s own applications into the Previous System Folder’s Applications folder, and moves the previous Mac OS X operating system folders into the Previous System Folder, as well as the Shared folder in the users folder (which is necessary for AOL to function, if you have AOL).
IMPORTANT If you are unable to preserve user and network preferences with the checkbox in the Archive and Install, your personal folders in the Users – your username folder will also get moved to the Users folder stored in the Previous System Folder, and a new Users folder of your username will be constructed with no contents except the default folders. This means iPhoto, iMovie, and iTunes data which were stored in Users -> your username -Pictures, Movies, Music respectively will not be able to load your saved data in those folders until you move their content back to the newly constructed Users folder from the Users folder in the Previous System Folder. After doing an Archive and Install, should all other things below not work, attempt updating to the version of X that last worked using one of these updates. Please note, some people have found updating using the combo updater to the next version works better than the single version updater. Some have had success getting 10.2.5 and 10.2.6 to work better by archive and installing, then running the 10.2.3 combo updater, and then running either the 10.2.5 or 10.2.6 updater.

10.2.6 and 10.2.7 non-G5 update to 10.2.8* or combo update to 10.2.8* 10.2.7 G5 only update 10.2.8* 10.2.8* 6R65 to 10.2.8 6R73
* 10.2.8 release 6R65 was pulled due to an issue with ethernet on some G4 450s and 500 Mhz models. Other issues have been reported on Macfixit and Apple Discussions Board, and whether they directly correlate with the 6R65 10.2.8 update is uncertain. Release 6R73 is in the 10.2.8 updates above. You can tell the version of 10.2.8 you have installed by selecting About This Mac from the Apple menu and clicking on the Option button when you click on the Mac OS X version in the About This Mac window. Upgrading to 10.2.8 is not recommended for those who have a Mac older than 10.2.7’s release of August 2003. Instead if you need 10.2.8’s compatibility, purchase Mac OS X 10.3, and take the precautions for installing Panther.
Note that while the combo update lists it is only for 10.2.0 to 10.2.5 on the download page, its more detailed info page says it is for 10.2.0 to 10.2.7 non-G5s. The same is true of the download page for the 10.2.6 update to 10.2.8, listing itself as an update for 10.2.6 and 10.2.7 non-G5 more detailed info page. As both download pages link to their more info page, I would give Apple feedback if you find that confusing, so the pages are more consistant.

10.3.1, and 10.3.2 both only come in combo update variations. 10.3.3 once again comes in combo and single version updates.
please read the Panther caution note prior to installing 10.3. 10.3 updates:
10.3 update to 10.3.1
If you find what you think should be considered a bug in any version of Mac OS X, visit: Mac OS X Feedback page on Apple’s site and offer some there. 10.2.7 was an interim release that never got a downloaded update but appeared on new machines in August through October 8, 2003. If you purchased a Mac after October 25, 2003 which was sold as new, and did not get some form of Mac OS X 10.3 installer, call Apple Support immediately. Those machines should have come with 10.3 and you may have a case assuming your receipt says it was purchased after October 25th.

As some of these downloads will take a long time you may want to locate your local Apple retailer and have them burn you a copy of the update at the store.
If all you have is Mac OS X 10.1, it is recommended you upgrade to at least 10.1.5 so you can repair permissions. Apple’s knowledgebase 106713 explains what updates you need depending on your installed version of Mac OS X 10.1

5. Preference files which get corrupted may cause numerous unexpected quits and misbehaving programs which can make programs act slow. Removing those preference files with a utility like Check Preference Files will help solve unexpected quits and misbehaving programs which may slow down your computer. Note preference files may also get corrupted, if something has affected either the directory or permissions. Please be sure to head the warnings on the “Check Preference Files” utility page above.

6. Local area networking (LANs) – sometimes having another machine on a local area network that isn’t connected can slow things down. Turn off file sharing of all machines on network that are not in use for file sharing.
7. Graphics Card – Jaguar (10.2) and Panther (10.3) fixes this issue for the most part.

8. Optical mice – if you have a mouse that has no rolling ball, but instead has a shining light on its bottom, it needs a surface that is textured. Uniform color surfaces with no patterns make it difficult for optical mice to track, thus making any dragging of the mouse over the surface appear to have little or no action. Use a textured mousepad or smooth surface that gives the mouse something visual to tell the difference of which surface it is tracking over. If your doing this and your mouse tracking is still slow, go to Apple menu – System Preferences – Mouse to change your mouse tracking speed.
There is a third party software called Mouse Zoom which lets you increase your tracking speed further.

10. Backup before running any utilities for Mac OS X. Backup your data religiously prior to running any disk utility with Dantz Retrospect or Carbon Copy Cloner to an external Firewire hard disk. These functions after a backup may help you recover a hard disk without having to go through the recovery software of the backup, though in case it fails, the backup recovery should always be an option. If you have one of these machines backup becomes somewhat more problematic:

PCI PowerMac G4 – the graphics card used by these Macs use a PCI card and not an AGP graphics card (link tells how to differentiate PCI and AGP). These Macs can’t boot off Firewire hard drives which means backups may require working with a machine that can. The ease of recovering from a bootable backup is not there for these machines nor Blue and White PowerMac G3s.

Both Beige PowerMac G3s, Powerbook G3s prior to 2000 can boot off SCSI hard drives, but it is hard to find a SCSI hard drive these days that will work with these machines.
The Tray Loading CD iMacs under 333 Mhz can have a Firewire port added to them, but that may not be bootable. Consult Sonnet as to whether that is possible.
The iMacs prior to the DV model that are not tray loading, and the iBooks prior to the DV model have no Firewire upgrade path, and USB is generally too slow to work with backing up Mac OS X entirely. For these Macs, a CD burner can be used for backup, but recognize media can deteriorate quickly with age, and you should frequently make duplicate backups to ensure you don’t lose your data. A full recovery is slower when you don’t have a machine you can boot from a backup.

A word of warning, don’t use Norton Utilities, as it is not 100% aware of the directory issues with Mac OS X and may corrupt directories of Mac OS X more often than save them:
You can boot into single user mode by holding down the command-S key combination and run /sbin/fsck -fy (/sbin/fsck -y for Mac OS X 10.2.8 or earlier) several times to fix the directory using File System Check (the abbreviation of which is fsck). File System Check can also be initiated by your Mac OS X installer CD, from the Installer menu -> Disk Utility -> First Aid tab -> select hard disk -> select Repair Disk button. For more on the directory, visit: the Mac OS X directory FAQ. A directory which is not repaired may cause a kernel panic.
When you boot from Jaguar (10.2) or newer Installer CD there is a Repair Permissions function found in its Disk Utility. The Disk Utility is called by selecting it from the Installer menu, and repair permissions or privledges is found in its First Aid tab. If you have upgraded Jaguar or Panther past the version on your installer CD, you should use the Disk Utility program found in your Applications -> Utilities folder instead. Do this repair when all other applications are quit. Be sure to also shut down the Classic environment from Apple menu -> System preferences -> Classic first. Permissions may get damaged by using Mac OS 9 applications either through booting into Mac OS 9 or running them in Classic.
Another utility that repairs permissions is Cocktail. Note, since Cocktail is an all purpose utility, only use it for the feature shown here, as using another part of it to solve your problem may cause more problems in the long run. It is best to repair permissions from the Applications -> Utility folder and not the installer CD if you have a newer version of Mac OS X on your hard disk. Though sometimes you may not have a choice, if the disk directory reports to be OK and you otherwise can’t startup your machine completely. Mac OS X 10.1.5 users can use the Repair Priviliges Utility for the same function as Jaguar and Panther’s Disk utility’s Repair Permissions.
Another utility which does directory fixes is Alsoft Disk Warrior 2.1.1 for machines bootable in Mac OS 9, and version 3.0 for machines only Mac OS X bootable. Disk Warrior 3.0.1 was released on January 22, 2004, and is available for $20.90 upgrade from Alsoft. The version 3.0.1 has Mac OS X 10.3.2 bootable system on its disk, the 3.0 version contains 10.2.6 as a bootable system.
You can only boot your computer from the operating system it came with or newer within limits Apple sets in the Spec Database.
Note some SCSI card and built-in SCSI machines may not accept Disk Warrior 3.0, but will accept Disk Warrior 2.1.1. If you need to create a bootable copy of Disk Warrior and add other system utilities, check this FAQ on how to construct a bootable CD.

See Zap PRAM for one other possible solution should you not be able to boot the computer after repairing the disk directory.

11. Prebinding – Jaguar (Mac OS X 10.2) was supposed to fix this issue, though it appears it hasn’t since Apple still uses this routine when installing new updates. Some other software may not perform a prebinding, and leave the system in a slow state after installation. XOptimize which you may need to expand with Stuffit Expander 7.01, and Cocktail are able to prebind the system. Note, since Cocktail is an all purpose utility, only use it for the feature shown here, as using another part of it to solve your problem may cause more problems in the long run. You can read a very interesting note from Apple’s Developer Website about prebinding for developers.

12. Logfile cleanup – happens in the middle of the night, though you can manually initiate it with Macjanitor. Note if you use Energy Saver to go to sleep in the middle of the night, it won’t run and you should use Macjanitor instead periodically if you can’t leave the machine on overnight using the screen effects (Mac OS X 10.2’s name for screen saver found in Mac OS X 10.0 and 10.1) found in the Apple menu – System Preferences – Screen Effects settings.
Another utility that does logfile cleanup is Cocktail. Note, since Cocktail is an all purpose utility, only use it for the feature shown here, as using another part of it to solve your problem may cause more problems in the long run.

13. Web browsing – Apple’s Safari web browser is the new standard in Mac OS X web browsing speed. Apple’s Safari has its own “Report Bugs to Apple” menuitem in the Safari menu itself, if you find a webpage that doesn’t work properly with Safari. Other web browsers which sometimes are as fast, or sometimes are more compatible with web pages are given below with their contact links for suggestions for improving their webpage compatibility:

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